various forms of alopecia

Types of Alopecia

Traditional treatment solutions for alopecia sufferers are inconsistent in results, fall short of expectation, and often temporary.

However, a permanent solution to conceal the effects of alopecia is here, and it’s helping thousands of men around the world regain their confidence.

Our innovative hair loss treatment has been adopted on every continent as a truly viable alternative to other alopecia solutions such as hair systems, concealers, corticosteroid injections, topical corticosteroid creams and lotions, immunotherapy, dithranol creams and minoxidil. Although these treatments do show positive results for some, Scalp Micropigmentation remains the only guaranteed, permanent, low maintenance and safe treatment option.

For further information about alopecia, there are several sites worth visiting that specialise in the subject.


Alopecia is defined as the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness. This hair loss disease affects men, women and children. The onset of alopecia is often sudden, random and frequently recurrent.

Prior to Scalp Micropigmentation there was no real alopecia treatment available.

Alopecia can be caused by various circumstances and one of them is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to attack the hair follicles, as well as being linked to stress and anxiety disorders. Sometimes a viral or bacterial infection is identified as the cause. It is not a disease.

It’s important to know that while this attack causes hair loss, the attack rarely destroys the hair follicles. This means that your hair can regrow. The less hair loss you have, the more likely it is that your hair will regrow on its own.

Alopecia affects approximately 2% of the Australian population at some point in their lifetime, with both men and women being equally affected. Approximately 25% of alopecia sufferers have a family history of the disorder.

For further information about alopecia, there are several sites worth visiting that specialise in the subject.


SMP is a suitable alopecia treatment for all skin types, including white, Asian and black skin tones, and can help with all types of alopecia related hair loss.

SMP is a highly advanced process, during which tiny deposits of specialist pigment are placed within the upper dermis of the skin. When applied by a skilled practitioner, these deposits accurately replicate real shaven hair follicles, and together provide an indistinguishable illusion of a real head of hair.

This treatment is safe, effective and permanent, and causes no damage to your hair follicles to ensure that your real hair has every opportunity to grow back in the future.

Keep in mind, your results rely on the practitioner’s skill at tattooing hair, not hair loss knowledge and treatments.

More information about Specific Forms of Alopecia

The list below can help figure out what type of alopecia you suffer from:

Alopecia Areata

  • Alopecia Areata Androgenetic/Diffuse: has been attributed to a short anagen phase and subsequent inability of hair to grow resulting in a form of incomplete hair loss affecting the whole scalp without distinct patches.
  • Alopecia Areata Monolocularis: describes baldness in only one spot. It may occur anywhere on the head.
  • Alopecia Areata Multilocularis: describes baldness to multiple areas of the head.
  • Alopecia Areata Barbae: describes hair loss limited only to the beard.
  • Alopecia Areata Totalis: explains the total loss of all the hair on the scalp.
  • Alopecia Areata Universalis: explains all body hair, including pubic hair, limb and facial hair.
  • Alopecia Areata Liminaris: describes hair loss at the hairline along the front and back edges of the scalp.
  • Cicatricial Alopecia: a diverse group of rare disorders that destroy the hair follicle, replace it with scar tissue, and cause permanent hair loss.
  • Alopecia Areata Ophiasis: The bald area runs from ear to ear at the back of the scalp.
  • Perinaevoid Alopecia Areata: is characterised by Pigmented nevi, these are spots of skin with colour different from surrounding skin – usually moles.
  • Triangular Alopecia Areata: a rare form of alopecia areata where the hair loss lesion presents in a triangular shape.
  • Reticular Alopecia Areata: is characterised by a net-like pattern of hair loss in which irregular areas without hair are interspersed with areas of hair on the scalp.

Alopecia Mucinosa

Scarring Alopecia

Traction Alopecia

While alopecia is not damaging to a person’s health, coping with forms of alopecia can prove challenging. The onset of alopecia is often swift and without any prior warning, and although the symptoms may be temporary for some, for others the condition may last a lifetime. Alopecia Areata most commonly presents in childhood and can be detected early.

Alopecia Areata General

Alopecia comes from the Greek word meaning loss of hair from head or body.

Alopecia Areata is the most common form of baldness where patches of hair loss can be seen. This form of alopecia is due to autoimmune disorders and can affect as many as one in 50 at some point in their lifetime.

It is believed to be due to a genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger. This causes an immune attack on hair follicles, in particular the follicles with pigment. In some people, acute stressful episodes, or anxiety attacks, have been implicated as an initiating cause.

The scalp is most commonly affected. There are no symptoms associated with the hair loss and the scalp skin looks normal. New hair eventually grows back but it can take many months.

Very rarely, alopecia areata can become much more extensive and progress into alopecia totalis where there is complete loss of all scalp hair. Changes to the body’s hormones can cause loss of hair such as during pregnancy, known as postpartum hair loss. The hair can become thinner or patchy but does eventually grow back. A sudden shock is known to cause hair loss and can happen almost overnight. Again, on this occasion the hair will grow back once the body is back to normal. Reducing stress levels or finding the environmental trigger can greatly help those who are prone to alopecia areata.

Overcoming the loss of hair is not always easy as it can cause a person to be self-conscience about their looks which in turn causes stress which leads to more hair loss. Finding the cause of the initial stress is important and may need the help of a professional to help overcome the problem. When the hair grows back it comes through finer to begin with but will eventually be back to full strength. Good hair grooming is a must for those who suffer alopecia areata. The use of a good shampoo and conditioner that suits the hair type will help to keep the hair in good order. Brushing out the dead hair will help to stimulate the hair follicles and encourage new growth. A new hair style can help to cover any thin patches and boost confidence. For suffers of hair loss it is sometimes better to have shorter hair as the weight of long hair can pull on the hair follicles and damage them. The scalp is very sensitive and needs to be looked after. Knowing what starts the hair loss can be an important measure in stopping it from reoccurring.

Alopecia Areata Multi/Monolocularis – (Spot Baldness)

Hair loss in this fashion refers to either one small area or multiple areas of hair loss.

Alopecia Multilocularis is the next stage after Alopecia Monolocularis. This sequence would be seen as a spread of the initial phase from one bald spot or patch, the condition worsens to multiple spots around the scalp or any other part of the body.

Alopecia Multilocularis would develop numerous spots with different sizes. It can range from the size of a 5c piece to as big as an adult’s palm. However the sizes of the spots may vary from one another. Sometimes the spots can be so close to each other that the bald spots can merge to become one large spot.

This advancement may happen from as short as a month to a year depending on the severity of this autoimmune disorder. It also depends if any treatment is being administered on the initial spot.
The spread however remains unexplained similar to the reason as to what triggers the disease.

Observation has shown that patients who have left the spot untreated are more likely to advance to Alopecia Multiclocularis compared to a patient who had been administered with a treatment.

In fact most patients that are undergoing treatment have managed to contain the problem at Alopecia Monolocularis stage and sometimes recovered. There are a number of recorded cases when Alopecia Areata starts form multiple spots with two or more spots appearing without experiencing Alopecia Monolocularis.

There are a number of recorded cases when Alopecia Areata starts form multiple spots with two or more spots appearing without experiencing Alopecia Monolocularis. As such there is no conclusive pattern that can be associated with this particular version of the disease.

Treatment administered on patients with Alopecia Multilocularis have shown slower effects than those with Alopecia Monolocularis.

Androgenetic Alopecia – (Male-Pattern Baldness)

Hair is usually lost in a well-defined pattern, beginning above both temples. Over time, the hairline recedes to form a characteristic “M” shape. Hair also thins at the crown (near the top of the head), often progressing to partial or complete baldness.

The pattern of hair loss in women differs from male pattern baldness. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head, and the hairline does not recede. Androgenetic alopecia in women rarely leads to total baldness. Androgenetic alopecia in men has been associated with several other medical conditions including coronary heart disease and enlargement of the prostate, a walnut-sized gland in males that is

located below the bladder. Additionally, prostate cancer, disorders of insulin resistance (such as diabetes and obesity), and high blood pressure (hypertension) have been related to androgenetic alopecia. In women, androgenetic alopecia is associated with an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is characterised by a hormonal imbalance that can lead to irregular menstruation, acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and weight gain. (Courtesy of:

How common is Androgenetic Alopecia?

Although androgenetic alopecia is a frequent cause of hair loss in both men and women, it is much more common in men. This form of hair loss affects 600,000 men in Australia. Androgenetic alopecia can start as early as a person’s teens and risk increases with age; more than 50 percent of men over age 50 have some degree of hair loss. Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of baldness in men that is usually inherited.


While there are many forms of scarring alopecia, the common theme is permanent and irreversible death of hair follicles, developing into scar tissue. Most forms of scarring alopecia first occur as small patches of hair loss that may expand with time. In some cases the hair loss is gradual, without noticeable symptoms, and may go unnoticed for a long time. In other instances, the hair loss is associated with severe itching, burning, and pain, and is rapidly progressive.

The scarring alopecia patches usually look a little different from alopecia areata in that the edges of the bald patches look more “ragged.” The destruction of the hair follicle occurs below the skin surface so there may not be much to actually see on the scalp skin surface other than patchy hair loss.

Affected areas may be smooth and clean, or may have redness, scaling, increased or decreased pigmentation, or may have raised blisters with fluids or pus coming from the affected area. Often, the early stages of a scarring alopecia will have inflammatory cells around the hair follicles, which, many researchers believe, induces the destruction of the hair follicles and development of scar tissue. However, there is some argument about this among dermatologists, as sometimes a biopsy from a scarring alopecia-affected individual shows very little inflammation. Scarring alopecia almost always burns out. The bald patches stop expanding and any inflammation, itching, burning, or pain goes away. Bald areas usually have no more hair follicles. Sometimes though, hair follicles, at least those at the periphery of a bald patch, are not completely destroyed and they can regrow, but often all that is left are just a few longitudinal scars deep in the skin to show where the hair follicles once were.

Can CICATRICIAL Alopecia be treated?

Hyaluronic Acid injections into the scarred area have given some regrowth results, but not 100% regrowth. If you decide to invest into HA Injections, be prepared that you may have to follow up with Scalp Micropigmentation to complete the whole area.

Traction Alopecia

Traction Alopecia is a self-inflicted form of hair loss, generally caused by over-zealous pulling of the hair, usually as the result of tight hairstyles.

The condition is more common amongst those of Afro-Caribbean origin, due to the widespread sporting of tightly pulled, braided hairstyles such as cornrows or tight ponytails.

Traction Alopecia does not generally happen overnight, but is usually the result of years of consistent pulling of the hair, which can dislodge hair at the root and traumatise the hair follicle. Hair loss caused by Traction Alopecia is generally first noticed at the frontal hairline.

In most cases, traction alopecia is reversible. Whatever caused the alopecia in the first place must be stopped, which generally means a change of hairstyle. Use of hair straighteners and curling tongs should be dramatically reduced or discontinued. Even so, expect the healing and reversal process to take around 6 months as a minimum.

Antibiotics may also be required, to rid the scalp of any infection caused by follicle damage.

Alopecia Barbae

Alopecia Barbae is another form of Alopecia Areata and is not correlated to any other health issues and doesn’t affect your overall health.

It is fairly typical for men who experience patches of facial hair loss to experience it again at another point in time, though the barbae form of alopecia does not indicate or boost your probability for other varieties of alopecia. Alopecia Barbae is a relatively rare kind of alopecia. Just about 2% of men experience this kind of alopecia areata. The hair follicles become inflamed and your hair can fall out sometimes in just a couple of days.

Alopecia Mucinosa

Alopecia Mucinosa is an abnormal accumulation of a normal substance, mucin, in hair bearing skin. For some unknown reason (thought to be related to our immune system) cells in the hair follicle produce an abnormal amount of mucin, causing a variety of skin lesions including hair loss and scarring.

Alopecia Mucinosa is most commonly found either in children, or adults in their 30’s and 40’s. The adult form tends to have more skin lesions and be last longer than the form typically found in children. A variety of treatments have been tried with some success but most lesions resolve within months to two years. Urticaria-like follicular mucinosis is very rare. It usually occurs in middle aged men on the head and neck. Red lesions are often seen and hair loss is rare.

The disease can last for years and may resolve on its own. It is not thought to be associated with any systemic diseases. Follicular mucinosis may also be found in connection with lymphomas of the skin. Alopecia mucinosis is distinguished from lymphoma related follicular mucinosis by microscopic evaluation and gene rearrangement studies.

Can Alopecia Mucinosa be treated?

No proven cure exists for alopecia mucinosa, although several treatments are routinely used. Treatments include topical corticosteroids, ultraviolet A light (PUVA) therapy, topical nitrogen mustard and radiation therapy have demonstrated some success. Isolated cases document the beneficial responses of dapsone, indomethacin, and interferons. Because of the sporadic and recurrent nature of alopecia mucinosa, the effectiveness of one particular solution is difficult to prove.

Scalp Micropigmentation will not cure alopecia mucinosa, but in many cases it can effectively camouflage its effects. Each case must be assessed individually whether or not SMP is suitable for mucinosa as it will largely depend on the condition of the scalp skin. To arrange a free consultation, please feel free to contact us.

Alopecia Totalis

Alopecia Totalis usually appears in two types: One being a fairly sudden and complete loss of all head hair. The other being a slower form which originates as Alopecia Areata and later advances to complete head hair loss.

Most sufferers are children and young adults under the age of 40, though it can affect people of all ages. It can also affect the the nails, giving them a ridged, pitted or brittle appearance. The onset of alopecia can often be sudden, and its expansion rapid. Alopecia totalis is ultimately the name given to a severe case of

alopecia areata, where the patches have grown so large that they cover the entire head, often including the eyebrows, eyelashes and beard hair. According to statistics, 2% of men and 1% of women in western society suffer from some form of alopecia, aside from those with regular androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness). About 2% of those have alopecia totalis, so the condition is proportionally rare. Only a small proportion of men who have alopecia areata go on to develop alopecia totalis, however the threat of complete hair loss is always there.

What causes Alopecia Totalis?

This condition comes about as a result of an autoimmune disorder which causes your immune system to attack your hair follicles, however the exact cause is unknown and is the subject of much debate. As time progresses we are coming to learn much more about this condition, but we are still a long way from a cure or preventative solution.

In most cases there is small chance of hair recovery, however there have been cases of complete restoration as well. Consider it a genetic auto immune condition that has an unknown trigger, and which can sometimes be “un-triggered” for unknown reasons. Scientists are still researching why hair follicles can become the target of autoimmune activities.

Can Alopecia Totalis be treated?

There are treatments available however these options only suppress the symptoms, they do not cure the problem, and do not work for everyone. Some of the options you may want to consider include corticosteroid injections, topical corticosteroid creams and lotions, minoxidil lotion, immunotherapy, dithranol cream and ultraviolet light treatment. Your doctor or other suitable medical professional can discuss these with you in more detail than is within the scope of this page. For many, scalp micro pigmentation offers an easy solution to cover up the effects of all forms of alopecia.

  • DPCP Treatment of Alopecia Totalis
  • The alopecia totalis Wikipedia page

Alopecia Universalis

Alopecia Universalis is a condition characterised by the complete loss of hair on the scalp, head and body. It is an advanced form of alopecia areata.

Normally, sufferers are otherwise healthy, but are more likely than the general population to experience thyroid disease and vitiligo (patchy loss of skin colour). Those with vitiligo may eventually develop Alopecia Universalis over time.

Many, however not all, individuals with Alopecia Universalis are born with some hair but begin losing it very quickly. The disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It is caused by a mutation in a gene dubbed HR in chromosome band 8p21.2 — the human version of the gene that is responsible for hairlessness in mice.

Is the “hairless” gene only found in people with alopecia universalis?

Most likely. Based on known research, we can safely assume that only individuals with this rare and severe form of alopecia areata carry the gene. Unfortunately, there have not been enough studies to verify that this is true of all those afflicted. Aside from genetic tendencies, the contributing causes of Alopecia Universalis are not known. As lack of body hair leaves areas like the scalp, eyes and nasal cavity particularly vulnerable, it is important that those with Alopecia Universalis take extra care to protect themselves from the sun, bacteria and other potentially harmful elements. Alopecia Universalis may be acute and short-lived or remain permanently. Regrowth is always a possibility, even for those with 100% hair loss over many years. However, it is not possible to predict when regrowth will occur.

Can Alopecia Universalis be treated?

There is no standard treatment for Alopecia Universalis.

However; There are two treatments which have provided low scale results:

  • Contact Immunotherapy:
    Contact immunotherapy involves the use of contact allergens, such as diphencyprone (DPCP) and squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), to induce an immune response that is thought to oppose the action of cells causing hair loss. A review that combined and analysed the findings of 45 studies comprising 2,227 patients showed any hair regrowth in 54.5% and complete hair regrowth in 24.9% of patients with AT and AU using contact immunotherapy. In addition to its helpful effects in treating AU, it can have side effects that can be very serious, like severe dermatitis.
  • Corticosteroids:
    Topical and intralesional corticosteroids, such as clobetasol proprionate, have also shown to be an effective treatment for AT and AU patients. A controlled study comprising 28 patients found positive terminal hair growth in 8 of the patients (28.5%) using a 0.05% clobetasol propionate ointment. This is very similar to the results obtained from immunotherapy treatment trials. Additionally, studies suggest that intralesional applications are much more effective than topical applications of steroids. However, the main side effect is increased risk of cutaneous atrophy at the site of treatment; folliculitis is also an occasional complication.


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